Commonly used Hindi words #51 to 60: गये, कभी, आदि, लोग, बार, यहाँ, दोनों, उन्होंने, कार्य, पास

These ten words are taken from a list of the most common Hindi words (courtesy of Hindi Google Group and Resource Center for Indian Language Technology Solutions). Two of them -- 51. गये and 58 उन्होंने -- are still mysterious, i.e., I didn't find a definition for them. I'll have to ask Pradeep and see what he thinks...

Common words in Hindi, numbers 51 through 60:

51. गये ga-ye (verb) plural perfective aspect of जाना, to go

52. कभी ka-bhī (adverb) sometimes; at any time

53. आदि a-di (noun) et cetera

54. लोग log (masculine/feminine/plural noun) people, folk

55. बार bār (masculine noun) 1. times, occasion. 2. gate, door; doorway.

56. यहाँ ya-hāṃ (adverb) 1. here. 2. at

57. दोनों do-noṃ (adverb) the two; both

58. उन्होंने un-hoṃ-ne (pronoun) oblique case of they

59. कार्य kār-ya (masculine noun) 1. action, act; activity. 2. work, task duty.

60. पास pās (adverb) nearby

All translations made with The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary.

Edit (15 August 2008): Updated with advice from Vinay and Pradeep -- see changes made in Errata, Words 1 to 100.

Punjabi: 21 to 31

ਇੱਕੀ (ikkī) - twenty-one

ਬਾਈ (bāī) - twenty-two

ਤੇਈ (teī) - twenty-three

ਚੌਵੀ (cauvī) - twenty-four

ਪੰਝੀ (paṃjhī) - twenty-five

ਛੱਬੀ (chabbī) - twenty-six

ਸਤਾਈ (satāī) - twenty-seven

ਅਠਾਈ (aṭāī) - twenty-eight

ਉਨੱਤਈ (unattī) - twenty-nine

ਤੀਹ (tīh) - thirty

ਇੱਕਤੀ (ikkatī) - thirty-one

How did I develop this? (1) I used Punjabi-English/English-Punjabi Dictionary and (2) Teach Yourself Panjabi.

Hindi: Commonly used words (41 to 50)

Taken from a list of most common Hindi words. Common words in Hindi, numbers 41 through 50:

41. थी (thī) - verb was (feminine past singular of होना)

42. वाले (vā-le) - postposition used to denote a relationship to the noun, verb, or adjective preceding the postposition

  • Feminine form of वाला
  • It was fairly complex to find a definition for this word. The best help that I found was on A Door into Hindi from North Carolina State University.

43. चाहिए (cā-hi-e) - intransitive verb is wanted (चाहिए को, is wanted by); is needful (to or for); should ought

44. दिन (din) - noun (m) a day

45. लेकिन (le-kin) - conjunction but; however

46. काम (kām) - noun (m) action; act; work; task

47. हूँ (hūṃ) - verb am (first person singular of होना)

48. होते (ho-te) - verb are (masculine third person plural form of होना)

49. इसके (is-a-ke) - pronoun of this, for this (oblique case of इस, this)

50. उन्हें (un-heṃ) - pronoun to them (dative case)

  • See Lesson 6.2 on A Door Into Hindi for an explanation of the dative case used here.

Many thanks to A Door Into Hindi, which provided help on the oblique and dative cases for िसके and उन्हें.

_1001 Books You Must Read Before You Die_ Spreadsheet

Making good on an earlier note to be active on LibraryThing, I went to the 1001 Books to read before you die group to look for suggestions on what to read next. In the past three weeks, I read Mother Night and A Man Without a Country by Kurt Vonnegut and The Satanic Verses by Salman Rushdie (all three highly recommended). I wanted something new, something unexpected, and getting a friendly nudge from a suggested list seemed like a good place to start.

So, I went to the Harris County Public Library on Monday and picked up two books from the list. I have no idea what either of the books are about -- it's nice to start with no expectations.

  1. The World According to Garp by John Irving
  2. Never Let Me Go by Kazuo Ishiguro

In the group on LibraryThing, I learned about a nifty spreadsheet by Arukiyomi that lists all of the 1001 books. An updated version in the group discussion list even included 1283 books, since the list was created in 2006 and revised in 2008 with additions and subtractions. (1001 Books You Must Read Before You Die, the inspiration for the group, is a book by Peter Boxall.)

I made a few modifications and, with inspiration from the Google Spreadsheet version posted to the group, I created a interactive version of the spreadsheet that differentiates between the 2006 and 2008 editions of the list.

  • View the spreadsheet
  • Copy a version of the spreadsheet (if you have a Google account, this will copy the spreadsheet to your Google Documents)
  • Download the spreadsheet as: .xls - .csv - .html - .ods - .pdf - .txt

Similar to the original by Arukiyomi, it calculates the percentage of the 1001 books that you have completed. In addition to that version, I am collecting links to the books (on LibraryThing) and the years of publication. I don't think I'll finish all 1001 books, but I am interested in reading a subset of the books that spans all of the time periods included in the list.

If you want to help me work on the spreadsheet, first I'd recommend that you join the group. Else, if you're not interested in that but want to help, email me and I'll give you edit access to the spreadsheet. It is a work-in-progress. If someone somewhere out there finds it useful, let me know -- suggestions and collaboration welcome.

As of... now, I have read only 19 (1.90%) of the books in the 2008 edition. My progress on this list can be seen here.

(Note: I've never seen the book 1001 Books You Must Read Before You Die. I've only latched onto it as a way of finding books to read that I otherwise never would have found. I have no opinion of contents or omissions of the list, except that I regretfully noticed it was missing my second favorite book, Desert Solitaire, by Ed Abbey.)

Punjabi: 11 to 20

ਗਿਆਰਾਂ (giārāṃ) - eleven

ਬਾਰਾਂ (bārāṃ) - twelve

ਤੇਰਾਂ (terāṃ) - thirteen

ਚੌਦਾਂ (caudāṃ) - fourteen

ਪੰਦਰਾਂ (paṃdarāṃ) - fifteen

ਸੋਲਾਂ (solāṃ) - sixteen

ਸਤਾਰਾਂ (satārāṃ) - seventeen

ਅਠਾਰਾਂ (aṭhārāṃ) - eighteen

ਉੱਨੀ (unnī) - nineteen

ਵੀਹ (vīh) - twenty

How did I develop this? (1) I used Punjabi-English/English-Punjabi Dictionary and (2) Teach Yourself Panjabi.

Groups I Joined on LibraryThing Today

The experience of joining a social media site -- or whatever we're supposed to call them, I don't really care -- is enhanced by how you interact with the other denizens of the site. I'm not that good at this aspect: meeting strangers via the internet and keeping up a conversation with them. I'm much better and meeting people in person, and then drawing that out later into long-distance conversation.

OK, I like to read. I have an account on LibraryThing, which heretofore I've only used as a database for my personal library, passively hoping that someone would come along and see it, connect with me. Passive, i.e., lazy.  So I'll try this. I've joined a few groups this morning:

  • Beat-itific. I'm not a die-hard Beat fan -- a lot of it is junk -- but some of it is pretty good.
  • Indian Authors. This is an offshoot of getting Indian author recommendations from Pradeep, plus I just finished reading The Satanic Verses by Salman Rushdie, which I really enjoyed.
  • Jack Kerouac - Jack is my second favorite author, below Kurt Vonnegut, above Ed Abbey.
  • Language - See kirkkittell.com/language to get an idea of why I joined this group. One of my major goals is to become fluent, or at least conversant, in more languages besides English.
  • Literatura en Espanol. I thought this might be a good way to shake the rust from my knowledge of Spanish.
  • poetry in translation. I wonder: what do you lose in translation in literature? How much of the rhyme or rhythm or feel do you miss? I'd like to read the Bhagavad Gita in Sanskrit or Gitanjali in Bengali.
  • Science! I like the crossroads between science and the arts. Vonnegut and Feynmann did it superbly, and I respect them immensely as a result.
  • What Are You Reading Now?1001 Books to read before you dieThe Prizes. These three seemed like interesting groups to join to get book recommendations.

(No, my dear space cadet friends, I didn't join any space-related groups. SHOCK. HORROR.)

I don't expect to be an everyday-type person over there. My simple goal is try it once per week for a while, see if it enhances the experience. What does "enhancing the experience" mean? It means, to me, that I learn about more books to read outside of my comfort zone of what I already know. (Plus, hey, if you know me, you know I like to make unsolicited recommendations, so I suppose I'll be sating that part of me over there as well.) Anything more than once per week is a time sink, anything less is not using the service.

Hindi: Commonly used words (31 to 40)

Taken from a list of most common Hindi words. Common words in Hindi, numbers 31 through 40:

31. फिर (phir) - adv. 1. anew, again. 2. thereafter, afterwards; next; then. 3. furthermore; but.

32. रहे (ra-he) - aux. v. masculine plural form of continuous aspect auxiliary verb

33. द्वारा (dvā-rā) - prep. by means

34. अधिक (adh-ik) - adj. increased, exceeding; more

35. रही (ra-hī) - aux. v. feminine singular form of continuous aspect auxiliary verb

36. होने (ho-ne) - v. be; oblique infinitive form of होना

37. एवं (e-vaṃ) - adv. 1. thus, so. 2. and.

38. हुई (hu-ī) - v. becoming - singular feminine perfective aspect of होना

39. थे (the) - v. were (past masculine plural of 'to be')

40. उनके (un-a-ke) - adj. his

As you can see, there are still some translations that are missing (???). Pradeep just sent me an email that describes these, plus other ???'s from previous posts. Some of blanks are regular omissions. From a few quick searches, I learned that रहे and similar words are part of a grammatical form known as the continuous aspect. Pradeep informed me that you wouldn't use that word on its own, only with other verbs. Some of the other missing words, such as होने, are forms of होना, which means to be -- a very important word. The variations of to be are, of course, critical. Since there are many forms, now I understand why they were not all present as individual words in the dictionary. So, tomorrow, it's time to take a break from rote vocabulary building and fill in the holes. Also, it's time to develop a strategy for learning. The spreadsheet above will be part of the plan. Some of the wiki sites I've found will also be part of the plan. But, I want to have clear goals and a clear understanding of how to get there. I don't just want to know a few things, I want to be really good at Hindi (and Spanish and Punjabi).

Punjabi: Months

ਮਹੀਨਾ (mahīnā) - m. month

ਜਨਵਰੀ (janvarī) - January

ਫਰਵਰੀ (farvarī) - February

ਮਾਰਚ (mārc) - March

ਅਪਰੈਲ (aprail) - April

ਮਈ (maī) - May

ਜੂਨ (jūn) - June

ਜੁਲਾਈ (julāī) - July

ਅਗਸਤ (agast) - August

ਸਤੰਬਰ (sataṃbar) - September

ਅਕਤੂਬਰ (aktūbar) - October

ਨਵੰਬਰ (navaṃbar) - November

ਦਸੰਬਰ (dasaṃbar) - December

How did I develop this? I used Teach Yourself Panjabi.

Hindi: Commonly used words (21 to 30)

View the list of most commonly used Hindi words. Common words in Hindi, numbers 11 through 20:

21. बात (bāt) - f. something said, a word, remark; speech, talk, words; conversation; discussion

22. कहा (ka-hā) - m. something said; a remark; remarks

23. समय (sam-ay) - m. time

24. क्या (kyā) - pron. or adv. what

25. अपनी (ap-nī) - adj. her own; hers - feminine form of अपना

26. होती (ho-tī) - v. happening - singular feminine imperfective aspect of होना

27. प्रकार (pra-kār) - m. kind; sort; type

28. बहुत (ba-hut) - adj. many; much

29. तरह (tar-ah) - f. kind; type

30. बाद (bād) - m. speech; discussion, dispute; argument

I discovered the spreadsheet containing the most frequently used words from the Hindi Google Group, a list which is apparently derived from Resource Center for Indian Language Technology Solutions at IIT-Mumbai.

Hindi: Commonly used words (11 to 20)

View the list of most common Hindi words. Common words in Hindi, numbers 11 through 20:

11. होता (ho-taa) - v. happening - singular masculine imperfective aspect of होना

12. था (thā) - v.i. imperf. was

13. दिया (di-yā) - given

14. हुए (hu-e) - v. becoming - plural masculine perfective aspect of होना

15. कोई (ko-ī) - pron. 1. someone; anyone. 2. some

16. रूप (rūp) - n. form; shape; appearance; aspect

17. से (se) - prep. by means of; by; with

18. मैं (mai) - pron. I

19. रहा (ra-hā) - aux. v. masculine singular form of continuous aspect auxiliary verb

20. हुआ (hu-ā) - v.i. became; came about; was

I discovered the spreadsheet containing the most frequently used words from the Hindi Google Group, a list which is derived from Resource Center for Indian Language Technology Solutions at IIT-Mumbai.