Hindi: Fricative Consonants: श, ष, स, ह

The seventh and final group of consonants -- श, ष, स, ह -- is the fricative consonants (Wikipedia Fricative consonants). As an aerospace engineer, fricatives are easy for me to understand. Fricatives are formed by forcing the air from your lungs into a tight channel and causing turbulence in the air flow; it's like placing a model in a wind tunnel.


śa, /ɕ,ʃ/


ṣa, /ʂ/

श and ष are essentially two flavors of sh. श (śa) is a palatal consonant, so it should be articulated with the top of the tongue against the palate. ष (ṣa) is a cerebral consonant, so it should be articulated with the tip of the tongue placed against the palate, behind the location where श is articulated. So, for me, an American, it is a matter of getting the tongue placement right.


sa, /s/


ha, /h,ɦ/

स and ह are just like their English transliterated counterparts, sa and ha. They are very common letters, as well. The alphabetical order of the first five groups of consonants followed rows in the table below. However, the alphabetical order of the sixth and seventh groups follows the columns. Thus, the alphabetical order is: (labials) प, फ, ब, भ, म; (approximants) य, र, ल, व; (fricatives) श, ष, स, ह.

Stop Nasal Approximant Fricative
Unvoiced Voiced Unvoiced Voiced
Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated
Guttural
ka
/k/

kha
/kh/

ga
/g/

gha
/gh/

ṅa
/ŋ/

ha
/h,ɦ/
Palatal
ca
/c,ʧ/

cha
/chh/

ja
/ɟ,ʤ/

jha
hh/

ña
/ɲ/

ya
/j/

śa
/ɕ,ʃ/
Cerebral
ṭa
/ʈ/

ṭha
h/

ḍa
/ɖ/

ḍha
h/

ṇa
/ɳ/

ra
/r/

ṣa
/ʂ/
Dental
ta
/t̪/

tha
/t̪h/

da
/d̪/

dha
/d̪h/

na
/n/

la
/l/

sa
/s/
Labial
pa
/p/

pha
/ph/

ba
/b/

bha
/bh/

ma
/m/

va
/ʋ/

I am archiving this information about the alphabet on the Hindi page: kirkkittell.com/language/hindi. More information from Wikipedia:

Knocking on Thoreau's Door

Last week, I took a flash business trip to Tewksbury, a Massachusetts suburb tucked halfway between Boston and the New Hampshire border. Selected photos are posted on Flickr.

As it turns out, I had four free hours before my flight was scheduled to leave from Boston. Naturally, in a strange place, I was going to try to make the most of it. One of my favorite things about the northeast is the American history that is represented there. The place I really wanted to find was Concord, location of the first battle of the Revolutionary War.

I wish I had picked up that map at the rental car office. Or maybe I'm glad I didn't.

I couldn't find the battlefield, which I now know is Minute Man National Historical Park. But, on the road into Concord, I learned that this is the home of Walden Pond, where Henry David Thoreau wrote Walden.

Walden Pond Panorama

I was seated by the shore of a small pond, about a mile and a half south of the village of Concord and somewhat higher than it, in the midst of an extensive wood between that town and Lincoln, and about two miles south of that our only field known to fame, Concord Battle Ground; but I was so low in the woods that the opposite shore, half a mile off, like the rest, covered with wood, was my most distant horizon.

--Chapter 2, "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For"

I bought Walden in Missoula, Montana, as I was passing through on my way from Mojave back to Illinois. I tried to read it once, failed after about 50 pages. Tried to read it again, maybe 20 pages this time. Gave up. It's one of those classics that you understand you're supposed to read for some reason or another, but why? It's clunky and Thoreau is pompous. I put the book away and forgot it.

Sometime in spring 2006, I picked it up again. This time it was different. I flew through it this time. Thoreau was still pompous and stuffy, but I followed the thread of the story more than the way it was told. I packed the book with me when I went to France, finished it there in Strasbourg, then performed what I consider to be the greatest compliment: I gave the book away to someone so that they could read it. (Natalie, did you finish it?)

Walden Pond

Our village life would stagnate if it were not for the unexplored forests and meadows which surround it. We need the tonic of wildness—to wade sometimes in marshes where the bittern and the meadow-hen lurk, and hear the booming of the snipe; to smell the whispering sedge where only some wilder and more solitary fowl builds her nest, and the mink crawls with its belly close to the ground. At the same time that we are earnest to explore and learn all things, we require that all things be mysterious and unexplorable, that land and sea be infinitely wild, unsurveyed and unfathomed by us because unfathomable. We can never have enough of nature. We must be refreshed by the sight of inexhaustible vigor, vast and titanic features, the sea-coast with its wrecks, the wilderness with its living and its decaying trees, the thunder-cloud, and the rain which lasts three weeks and produces freshets. We need to witness our own limits transgressed, and some life pasturing freely where we never wander.

--Chapter 17, "Spring"

Someone asked me what Walden was about. I told her it was about eliminating the junk that we quietly shovel onto ourselves every day. Thoreau went to Walden to figure out what unnecessary weight was hanging around all of our necks. There's a ton of it. You don't see it because it's familiar. You don't feel it because you don't remember what you felt like without it.

I've had my time alone in the desert and in other places, albeit in shifts. It's good to get away if you can manage it. But, on the other hand, it's good to look into those away places through a window like Walden, instead of wandering out there ourselves. Not all of our load can be dropped responsibly in order to get away to the outskirts. You don't need to get away to have perspective.

Read Walden. I recommend it. You won't agree with all of it, but it's a welcome change in perspective; in that regard, you need it.

Walden Pond from Thoreau's Cabin

I left the woods for as good a reason as I went there. Perhaps it seemed to me that I had several more lives to live, and could not spare any more time for that one. It is remarkable how easily and insensibly we fall into a particular route, and make a beaten track for ourselves. I had not lived there a week before my feet wore a path from my door to the pond-side; and though it is five or six years since I trod it, it is still quite distinct.

--Chapter 18, "Conclusion"

Mike, I offer those last lines from Walden to you as an explanation for why Ed Abbey could -- needed to -- transform from Ed of The Desert to Ed of The City. Maybe you need to step outside of the frame to appreciate what lies within it.

Hindi: Approximant Consonants: य, र, ल, व

The sixth group of consonants -- य, र, ल, व -- is the approximant consonants (Wikipedia Approximant consonants). The approximants sound similar to their corresponding English consonants, as shown in the transliterations below. Approximants are special because they resemble vowels -- a sort of middle sound between vowels and consonants.


ya, /j/


ra, /r/


la, /l/


va, /ʋ/

The alphabetical order of the previous five groups of consonants followed rows in the table below. However, the alphabetical order of the sixth and seventh groups follows the columns. Thus, the alphabetical order is: (labials) प, फ, ब, भ, म; (approximants) य, र, ल, व; (fricatives) श, ष, स, ह.

Stop Nasal Approximant Fricative
Unvoiced Voiced Unvoiced Voiced
Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated
Guttural
ka
/k/

kha
/kh/

ga
/g/

gha
/gh/

ṅa
/ŋ/

ha
/h,ɦ/
Palatal
ca
/c,ʧ/

cha
/chh/

ja
/ɟ,ʤ/

jha
hh/

ña
/ɲ/

ya
/j/

śa
/ɕ,ʃ/
Cerebral
ṭa
/ʈ/

ṭha
h/


ḍa
/ɖ/


ḍha
h/

ṇa
/ɳ/

ra
/r/

ṣa
/ʂ/
Dental
ta
/t̪/

tha
/t̪h/

da
/d̪/

dha
/d̪h/

na
/n/

la
/l/

sa
/s/
Labial
pa
/p/

pha
/ph/

ba
/b/

bha
/bh/

ma
/m/

va
/ʋ/

I am archiving this information about the alphabet on the Hindi page: kirkkittell.com/language/hindi. More information from Wikipedia:

The Week in Project 365 Photos [2009-W06]

Hey, this is a late post on this topic, but it's not like I'm running a high traffic site here. Here are my photos for Project 365 from a week ago. Tomorrow I'll post photos from this week, thus completing a manipulation of space-time by separating a week by a day. Or whathaveyou.

Library Stamp
Note: The inside of The Ground Beneath Her Feet by Salman Rushdie is more interesting than the side, which is shown here.
Library Stamp [2009-033]

Dinner
Yeah. I cook. Not particularly well, but good enough for a guy living on his own.
Dinner [2009-034]

All in a Day's Work
For Johnson Space Center's Safety and Total Health Day, there were a number of booths and demonstrations, including this one by Clear Lake Kuk Sool Won. I think I'd like martial arts such as this. But. I don't think I'll be in the area long enough to really get into the groove. 
All in a Day's Work [2009-035]

In the Dark
The best from Shiner -- give it a try. 
In the Dark [2009-036]

Outside Mission Control
Detail from above the entranceway to Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center. 
Outside Mission Control [2009-037]

Spiritus Mundi
This is an elegant little sculpture -- and by little I mean huge -- by Pablo Serrano sitting in front of University of Houston-Clear Lake
Spiritus Mundi [2009-038]

45678
The latest milestone which I've subjected my car to. 
45678 [2009-039]

The Big Lebowski at Barack Obama's Inauguration

I love making panoramas. You probably know this already. Today I found this 59,783 X 24,658 pixel panorama (that everyone else apparently already knows about) from Barack Obama's inauguration by David Bergman.

Go look at it. Now. It's fantastic. And enormous.

Now, zoom in. Zoom in behind President Obama...

Wait. Is that The Big Lebowski?

Is usaservice.org really just a front for the Little Lebowski Urban Achievers?

You make the call.

David Huddleston as The Big Lebowski

David Huddleston as the Big Lebowski

Dick Cheney as... The Big Lebowski?

Dick Cheney at Barack Obama inauguration

(The first image is a screen capture from The Big Lebowski. The second image is a closeup from an enormous panorama by David Bergman.)

On Sprinting

This morning I read an article by Seth Godin that I liked: "Sprint!"

The best way to overcome your fear of creativity, brainstorming, intelligent risk taking or navigating a tricky situation might be to sprint.

This is a technique that I use for writing. Every day (usually), I sit down for 15 minutes and write. I expect the full composition to be a book, Above Cedar Creek, a memoir from working at Boy Scout camp in Illinois. It's still a long ways off, but I'm getting there.

I use a 15-minute writing sprint for two reasons.

First, I have a day job, and I plan to keep my day job. I need a plan that keeps me motivated and writing regularly, but fits in the space that I have.

Second, writing is often a terrifying experience. Sometimes it's easy and the locution of camp writes itself, as if it was released under pressure from within. Those are great days. Many of the days are not like that. Looking at the next 80,000 or 100,000 words from where I stand is daunting. But, how do you eat an elephant? One bite at a time. Performing a 15-minute sprint makes me look at what is directly in front of me -- 400 or 500 words in a defined time -- instead of getting discouraged by the remoteness of the end goal. Sprinting doesn't eliminate my fear, but it keeps me from focusing on it and thus getting stopped by it.

Granted, after 15 minutes of unedited sprinting, I don't have a very good episode. But I don't expect that. Editing comes later, and editing requires a different set of muscles; editing is a long grind. After 15 minutes I have a core of useful material. From this point, the effort is to free the underlying form from the stone:

The marble not yet carved can hold the form Of every thought the greatest artist has.

--Michelangelo Buonarroti, via The Columbia World of Quotations, 1996.

Photo Backup Scheme

I'm obsessed with the idea of how to backup the digital life that I've strewn across the internet and also accumulated on my laptop. Last year -- and I suppose this year also, if I turned it on -- my laptop was dying. When I was at ISU in France in summer 2006, I fell asleep on my laptop and busted the adapter. After two years with a power adapter borrowed from a European computer, the cord melted, sparks flew, etc. Naturally, I blame the French.

How to back up photos has taken the bulk of my archival brainpower. If my laptop died, the worst possible scenario is that all of my digital photos that weren't burned onto CDs would be annilihated. It would be selfishly devastating. Maybe that sort of thing doesn't keep you up at night, but I worry about it. It's not the loss of property that worries me -- it's the loss of history that worries me. What I've seen is what I've become. I'd like you and others to see it as well, if only out of my own narcissistic tendencies (i.e., please tell me my photos are amazing).

The system I've developed for myself goes as follows. The basic idea is to (1) keep the whole of the photos in multiple places so they can't be destroyed in a single oops moment; (2) put the best out there where others can enjoy them.

1) photos.kirkkittell.com. All of the digital photos that I've ever taken are backed up online at photos.kirkkittell.com. You can't see them all. For every set that I add to Flickr, I unlock the corresponding album on photos.kirkkittell.com. There are a lot of junk photos there; there's a reason they weren't all added to Flickr. The photos are all open for rating, so perhaps the cream will eventually rise to the top. Or not. I don't care. The purpose of photos.kirkkittell.com is solely backup, not entertainment.

2) Flickr. I try to add only my most interesting photos to my Flickr account. The truth is: the more photos there are, the fewer you will see. Too many is overwhelming. That's why the number of photos in my Flickr account is decreasing even though I'm adding new photos every week. I'm separating the chaff, which will still be visible at photos.kirkkittell.com.

3) Panoramio. I really like Panoramio, though it is not as full-featured as Flickr. Panoramio is cool because you geotag your photos, and if they're selected by the staff, they show up in Google Earth. As a geophile, I enjoy scanning the Panoramio layer in Google Earth, getting a feel for what the places actually look like.

4) Panoramas. (Not to be confused with Panoramio.) For years, I've been taking shots that I later wanted to stitch together into panoramas. Finally, in October, I discovered hugin to do this. And I've been on a roll since then: see my panoramas on Flickr.

That said, I've been working slowly through my old photos. It's a long process. My goal is to process one album of photos every week. At this rate, it will probably be a year, maybe two, before I finish. It takes time to add tags, descriptions, geographic locations where the photos were snapped, etc. Some of this is easy: editing the information on Flickr; some of this is difficult: editing the EXIF data on the photos.

So far, I've completed three albums this year:

Big Bend National Park, 26-28 January 2005 Big Bend National Park, 26-28 January 2005
 

Guadalupe Mountains National Park, 28-29 January 2005 Guadalupe Mountains National Park, 28-29 January 2005
 

Saguaro National Park, 30 January 2005 Saguaro National Park, 30 January 2005
 

Conclusion: "Yes! I am inveenceeble!"

Postscript: Hey, Ben, the next album out of the showroom will be for you: life in Mojave.